References to A right to the administration of justice in a timely manner with due process of law, trial by jury by an independent judiciary, equal protection under the law, a right to confront one’s accusers and the nature of one’s crimes when accused, provide evidence for one’s defense as well as have council in one’s defense, to not have excessive bail or fine imposed, and to be free of cruel and unusual punishment can be found in:
  1. Declaration of Independence “He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers”
  2. Declaration of Independence “For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury”
  3. 5th Amendment of the United States Constitution “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger...nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”
  4. 6th Amendment to the United States Constitution “the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law”
  5. 7th Amendment to the United States Constitution “n suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law”
  6. Virginia Declaration of Rights, Section VIII “That in all capital or criminal prosecutions a man hath a right to demand the cause and nature of his accusation to be confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of his vicinage, without whose unanimous consent he cannot be found guilty, nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; that no man be deprived of his liberty except by the law of the land or the judgement of his peers”
  7. Virginia Declaration of Rights, Section XI, “That in controversies respecting property and in suits between man and man, the ancient trial by jury is preferable to any other and ought to be held sacred”
  8. Virginia Declaration of Rights, Section XV “That no free government, or the blessings of liberty, can be preserved to any people but by a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, frugality, and virtue and by frequent recurrence to fundamental principles”
  9. Massachusetts Body of Liberties Section II, “Every person within this Jurisdiction, whether Inhabitant or forreiner shall enjoy the same justice and law, that is generall for the plantation, which we constitute and execute one towards another without partialitie or delay”
  10. Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges Section VI “That no Person or Persons shall or may, at any Time hereafter, be obliged to answer any Complaint, Matter or Thing whatsoever, relating to Property, before the Governor and Council, or in any other Place, but in ordinary Course of Justice, unless Appeals thereunto shall be hereafter by law appointed”
  11. Pennsylvania Frame of Government Section V, “That all courts shall be open, and justice shall neither be sold, denied nor delayed”
  12. Pennsylvania Frame of Government Section VII, “That all pleadings, processes and records in courts, shall be short, and in English, and in an ordinary and plain character, that they may be understood, and justice speedily administered”
  13. Pennsylvania Frame of Government Section VII, “That all trials shall be by twelve men, and as near as may be, peers or equals, and of the neighborhood, and men without just exception; in cases of life, there shall be first twentyfour returned by the sheriffs, for a grand inquest, of whom twelve, at least, shall find the complaint to be true; and then the twelve men, or peers, to be likewise returned by the sheriff, shall have the final judgment.  But reasonable challenges shall be always admitted against the said twelve men, or any of them”
  14. Pennsylvania Frame of Government Section IX, “That in all prosecutions for criminal offences, a man hath a right to … a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the country, without the unanimous consent of which jury he cannot be found guilty”
  15. Pennsylvania Form of Government Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights Section XI, “That in controversies respecting property, and in suits between man and man, the parties have a right to trial by jury, which ought to be held sacred”
  16. Declaration of Independence “He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.”
  17. United States Constitution Article III, Section 2, " The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. "
  18. 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution “No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”
  19. 6th Amendment to the Constitution “In all criminal prosecutions, …  and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence”
  20. Virginia Declaration of Rights, Section VII, “That in all capital or criminal prosecutions a man hath a right to demand the cause and nature of his accusation to be confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of his vicinage, without whose unanimous consent he cannot be found guilty, nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; that no man be deprived of his liberty except by the law of the land or the judgement of his peers”
  21. Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges Section V, “That all Criminals shall have the same Privileges of Witnesses and Council as their Prosecutors”
  22. Pennsylvania Frame of Government Section VI, “That, in all courts all persons of all persuasions may freely appear in their own way, and according to their own manner, and there personally plead their own cause themselves; or, if unable, by their friends: and the first process shall be the exhibition of the complaint in court, fourteen days before the trial; and that the party, complained against, may be fitted for the same, he or she shall be summoned, no less than ten days before, and a copy of the complaint delivered him or her, at his or her dwelling house.  But before the complaint of any person be received, he shall solemnly declare in court, that he believes, in his conscience, his cause is just.”
  23. Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights Section IX, “That in all prosecutions for criminal offences, a man hath a right to be heard by himself and his council, to demand the cause and nature of his accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses, to call for evidence in his favour"
  24. Declaration of Arms, "They have undertaken ... depriving us of the accustomed and inestimable privilege of trial by jury, in cases affecting both life and property;"
  25. The Northwest Ordinance Article II, "The inhabitants of the said territory shall always be entitled to the benefits of the writ of habeas corpus, and of the trial by jury;"
  26. The Northwest Ordinance Article II, "No man shall be deprived of his liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers or the law of the land;"
  27. Farifax County Resolves "10. Resolved that the several Acts of Parliament for raising a Revenue upon the People of America without their Consent, the creating new anddangerous Jurisdictions here, the taking away our Trials by Jurys, the ordering Persons upon Criminal Accusations, to be tried in another Country than that in which the Fact is charged to have been committed"
  28. A FRAGMENT OF FACTS, DISCLOSING THE CONDUCT OF THE MARYLAND CONVENTION, ON THE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE OF MARYLAND. "2. That there shall be a trial by jury in all criminal cases,"
  29. A FRAGMENT OF FACTS, DISCLOSING THE CONDUCT OF THE MARYLAND CONVENTION, ON THE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE OF MARYLAND "3. That, in all actions on debts or contracts, and in all other controversies respecting property, of which the inferior federal courts have jurisdiction, the trial of facts shall be by jury, if required by either party according to the course of proceeding in the state where the offence is committed"
  30. A FRAGMENT OF FACTS, DISCLOSING THE CONDUCT OF THE MARYLAND CONVENTION, ON THE ADOPTION OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE OF MARYLAND "5. That, in all cases of trespasses done within the body of a county, and within the inferior federal jurisdiction, the party injured shall be entitled to trial by jury in (the state) where the injury shall be committed."
  31. English Bill of Rights "That Jurors ought to be duly impanelled and returned, and Jurors which pass upon Men in Trials for High Treason ought to be Freeholders."
  32. English Bill of Rights "That all Grants and Promises of Fines and Forfeitures of particular Persons before Conviction, are illegal and void"
  33. English Bill of Rights "And they do claim, demand, and insist upon all and singular the Premisses, as their undoubted Rights and Liberties; and that no Declarations, Judgements, Doings, or Proceedings, to the Prejudice of the People in any of the said Premisses, ought in any wise to be drawn hereafter into Consequence or Example."
  34. Ratification of the Constitution by the State of North Carolina November 21, 1789 "That the legislative, executive and judiciary powers of government should be separate and distinct,"
  35. 8th Amendment to the United States Constitution “Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed”
  36. Virginia Declaration of Rights, Section IX, “That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted”
  37. Pennsylvania Form of Government Section XVIII, “That all fines shall be moderate, and saving men’s contenements, merchandize, or wainage”
  38. FRAME OF GOVERNMENT FOR COMMONWEALTH OR STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA SECTION 29 “Excessive bail shall not be exacted for bailable offences:  And all fines shall be moderate”
  39. The Northwest Ordinance Article II, “All fines shall be moderate; and no cruel or unusual punishments shall be inflicted.”, English Bill of Rights “That excessive Bail ought not to be required, nor excessive Fines imposed; nor cruel and unusual Punishments inflicted”





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